Falls and Fall Prevention in Adults

Publication ID: 8742051963
Published on: February 2022
Major Revision: May 1, 2024


Between 700,000 and 1,000,000 falls occur annually in US hospitals alone, and nearly 40% of elderly patients experience a fall within six months post-discharge. Potential injuries from a fall may include fractures, lacerations, or internal bleeding, putting patients at significantly greater risk of serious outcomes while placing additional burdens on the healthcare system. The direct cost of all fall injuries in older adults was estimated to be $32 billion in 2020. That number could increase to an estimated $240 billion by 2040 when taking into account a growing number of hip fractures experienced by the aging population. Healthcare organizations can significantly reduce the amount of patient harm and deaths caused by falls by successfully implementing the actionable steps outlined in this blueprint.
Frontline staff

This blueprint outlines the steps that frontline staff can follow to prevent falls:

Clinical Workflow

  1. Admission
    1. Upon admission conduct a comprehensive fall risk assessment immediately:
      1. This should include a visual assessment; a hearing and vertigo assessment; a gait, balance, and mobility assessment; medical history review, including previous falls; and a medication review.
    2. Obtain previous falls history.
    3. Assess for fall risk, including:
      1. History of falls
      2. Medication review
      3. Strength and balance exercise
      4. Checking for orthostatic hypotension, incontinence, foot problems, and other acute/chronic problems
      5. Checking patient’s vision, hearing, and nutrition
    4. Any history of falls should prompt risk stratification with gait and balance testing.
    5. Assess gait speed: The average gait speed of patients who fell is 0.67 m/s compared to 0.8 m/s who did not fall.
  1. Routine Care
    1. Continuously reassess for fall risk and for the presence of risk factors. Assess upon admission, transfer of care (handoffs), with altered mental status, and/or with any change in condition.
    2. Provide education for the patient and their support person on preventing falls before, during, and after a patient’s hospital stay.
    3. Use ambulation equipment and visual cues, such as color-coded gowns, wristbands, socks, signage, and other visual cues. Share this information with patients and their loved ones to heighten their awareness of fall risks and your proactive prevention cues.
    4. Tailor interventions to specific fall risk factors and share this information with patients and families to heighten their awareness of fall risk factors and potential ways to collaborate with you to prevent falls.
    5. Keep beds in the position most appropriate for the patient. Often, this may be the lowest position, but assess patient height, need for transfer, and other factors. Position guardrails according to organizational policy with caution to avoid unnecessary or unintentional restraint.
    6. Use a gait belt upon ambulation, as indicated, only if adequately trained, and only as appropriate. Before gait belt use, assess the patient for contraindications, including recent abdominal, back, or chest surgery, hernia, severe cardiac or respiratory conditions, abdominal aneurysm, or the presence of a gastrostomy tube or other equipment that might be compromised by gait belt use.
    7. Ask the patient about their understanding and acceptance of their own risk of falls as a preventive measure. Understand how the patient feels and consider patient-specific psychological factors that may increase risk. Ensure patient and visitors understand the fall prevention strategies, such as bed alarms and chair alarms, and include the patient’s loved ones in all conversations, as approved by the patient.
    8. Ensure sturdy, non-skid, well-fitted footwear upon ambulation.
    9. Do not use restraints for fall prevention.
    10. Use the organizational visual tool to indicate fall risk and share this information with the patient and family members.
    11. Review the “Days Since” sign on the unit.
    12. Ensure patient and family members understand their environmental factors that could increase fall risk (e.g., objects on wheels, slippery floors, lighting, etc.).
    13. Conduct a routine environmental safety checklist, which should include review of lighting in rooms and bathrooms, floors, unsafe equipment, cord hazards, etc. Consider use of lights to guide patients to the restroom.
    14. List medications with potential to cause falls and paste at nurse stations.
    15. Make recording of supine blood pressure as important parameter before mobilizing patients post-surgery.
    16. Remain vigilant for implicit bias in care.
  2. Treatment After Falls
    1. Conduct a thorough debrief with the patient, family members, and care team to understand root causes.
    2. Follow organizational protocol for obtaining a CT.
    3. Understand patient anticoagulant use.
    4. Complete further imaging/evaluation based on complaints.
    5. If no one was present when the patient fell, verify that the environment is safe by quickly scanning the patient’s location and surroundings to make sure that there are no imminent physical threats, such as toxic or electrical hazards.
    6. Provide immediate lifesaving treatment if indicated (e.g., CPR, control bleeding) and call for assistance (e.g., Rapid Response, Medical Emergency Team, local emergency number and/or 911). Don’t move the patient until you fully evaluate the patient’s status to prevent further injury if an injury has occurred as a result of the fall.
    7. Make sure to pay attention to deviations from the patient baseline after the patient’s nurse documents observations (e.g., bleeding, contusions, abrasions, swelling, pain, deformities) and assessment (e.g., vital signs, including pain and orthostatic blood pressures, range of motion, neuro, glucose) post fall.
    8. Review patient’s risk for bleeding; include use of anticoagulants, PT/INR/PTT, and platelet levels, if known.
    9. Ask the patient or a witness what happened. Ask whether the patient experienced pain or a change in level of consciousness.
    10. Notify provider. Obtain imaging as ordered by provider.
    11. Notify the patient’s emergency contact.
      1. Disclose the incident to their family members.
      2. Debrief to discuss root causes.
      3. Provide support to family members.
    12. Assess need for change in provider orders and/or level of care.
    13. Perform a debriefing with the patient and care team to determine the root cause of the fall. Gather assessment data from the patient, visitors, staff members, and any additional witnesses to the fall. Review the events that preceded the fall and any contributing factors. Discuss why it occurred and how it could have been prevented. Assess the patient’s environment, looking for possible causes of the fall. Review medications for medications that may have contributed to the fall (e.g., sedatives and opioids). Assess for gait disturbances or improper use of a cane, crutches, or a walker. Review and update plan of care as needed.
    14. Document the patient fall per institution guidelines.
    15. Have the patient’s nurse update the risk assessment and interventions after any patient fall.
    16. Continue to reassess per institution guidelines, particularly within 18–24 hours after the initial fall, as many injuries do not present themselves immediately.
    17. Notify Risk Management/supervisor if the fall results in serious harm.
  3. Discharge
    1. Do a fall risk assessment on the day of discharge to set realistic expectations for recovery and risk factors.
    2. Provide discharge education on fall prevention to teach patients to remain safe outside the hospital. Consider use of the CMS Falls Prevention Interventions in the Medicare Population.
    3. Understand balance issues, history of falls, and hospital falls incident rates as an outpatient provider. Conduct a neurological exam upon the first conversation with the patient to understand their cognition.
    4. Label medications which have the potential to cause falls.
    5. Consider cultural factors that may contribute to fall risks and discuss with patients and family members how to mitigate (e.g., washing of feet before prayer).
    6. Ensure patients and family members are aware of their personal risk factors for a fall (e.g., certain medications prescribed).
    7. Discuss home safety improvements, including removal of rugs, installation of handrails, and use of walking aids.
    8. Recommend exercise program to improve balance and strength.

Education for patients and family members

The outline below illustrates all of the information that should be conveyed to the patient and family members by someone on the care team in a consistent and understandable manner.

  1. In addition to ensuring safe staffing to patient ratios, utilize additional support staff (i.e., sitters) when a patient needs ongoing assistance with ambulation.
  2. Provide patient education in an effective manner and based on the patient’s communication needs (i.e., written or in American Sign Language for the hard of hearing, and verbally or in braille for the visually impaired) when the patient first arrives to the unit.
  3. Explain why fall prevention is important. A member of the healthcare team should elaborate on the need to prioritize fall prevention and should provide a basic overview of strategies used within the organization to prevent falls. For example, if there are clear visual indicators in the patient room when explaining, like colored socks, point them out to aid in the explanation.
  4. Indicate what to watch out for. Family members can serve as an extra pair of eyes and ears and can alert medical staff if something might be wrong. Family members should have an understanding of what to look for that may indicate levels of fall risk, such as altered mental status or orthostatic hypotension. In order to adequately welcome patients and family members into the care team, it is not enough to explain “what” patients and family members should look for or “what” is going to happen in their care. The “what” must always be followed with a “why” to aid in genuine understanding.
  5. Explain what is expected of them during their care. By giving patients and family members a “job” while they are in the hospital, they can be immersed fully in the routine care, can hold other team members accountable, can feel more confident voicing their concerns or opinions, and can serve as an extra set of informed and vigilant eyes to optimize patient safety. This team involvement can also reduce their anxiety by transforming concern into proactive action.
  6. Family members should know exactly when to call for help, where to go for help, and with whom they should speak. It is essential that patients and family members understand that they should not be ashamed to ask any of their questions and that many patients in similar situations often have similar questions.
  7. Explore next steps. Planning for life after the hospital, whether in assisted living, returning home, or another option, should begin as early as possible between the healthcare providers and the patient and family.
  8. Have a discussion with the patient and family around end-of-life care and advanced directives.
  9. Make an attempt to thoroughly understand the religious or cultural nuances in any of the patient’s or family members’ decisions or questions.
  10. Ensure thorough explanation of necessary post-discharge appointments, therapies, medications, and potential complications.
  11. Assess for patient preference in time and location of follow-up appointments, if possible.
  12. Provide patients and family members resources, including direct contact phone numbers, to the hospital for post-discharge questions.
  13. Make sure the resources are in their own language.
  14. Provide thorough instructions to the patient and family members in the days leading up to discharge regarding fall prevention and recovery after discharge.
  15. If aftercare is required after discharge, set aside time with the patient and family members more than once to ensure their understanding and confidence.
Unit Managers

This guide outlines the steps that unit managers should follow to prevent falls:

Leadership Checklist

Use this checklist as a guide to determine whether current evidence-based guidelines are being followed in your organization.

  1. Perform a baseline assessment of risk management data to understand the common causes of falls on inpatient units, applicable to all care areas (e.g., Pareto charts).
  2. Expect that when the organization starts tracking safety events, there will be an initial increase in reported events before organizational improvement work begins to reduce error rates over time. Ensure that the frontline staff and leaders understand this so they don’t become demotivated to improve.
  3. Ensure frontline involvement in falls improvement activities. Maintain their engagement and remove barriers to progress.
  4. Ensure that falls protocols are embedded in clinical workflows, whether electronic or
  5. Ensure there are enough clinically competent, trained staff to effectively manage necessary preventive See “Provide education and training” below for more information.
  6. Ensure adequate training and documentation of falls screening and prevention competencies and skills.
  7. Eliminate barriers to making rapid changes to documentation templates and order sets.
  8. Debrief on a regular basis to solicit team feedback about barriers to sustained compliance. Adjust the plan quickly and nimbly as needed.
  9. Hold staff accountable for providing the standard of care and reward success.
  10. Reinforce just culture practices for staff members who report patient falls.
  11. Ensure that leaders have a simple process to oversee falls improvement work while also considering how it aligns with other initiatives across the
  12. Include patient and family voices in the fall prevention process.
  13. Ensure fall prevention is organization-wide and that the responsibility does not fall on one discipline.
  14. Adopt a standardized definition of falls with specific categorization criteria.
  15. Standardize visual cues to indicate high-risk fall patients for staff members, in addition to ambulation equipment (e.g., color-coded gowns, wristbands, socks, etc.).
  16. Review your falls data monthly at Quality and Patient Safety Committee meetings. Share tracked/trended falls data and lessons learned with frontline staff. Be transparent about causes of falls on unit and engage frontline staff in finding solutions to minimize those causes. It is not uncommon for frontline staff to not understand why falls data is being collected.
  17. Create a tiered fall prevention program with involvement from those at the unit level, with outpatient providers, and at the leadership and systems levels to ensure when people move throughout the system, they are faced with the same protocols. Ensure comprehensive discipline representation.
  18. Maintain inventory of appropriate tools for ambulation and injury prevention (e.g., hip pads, personal alarms, etc.).
  19. Train non-clinical staff alongside clinical staff in identifying a patient at high risk, maintaining a safe environment, and calling for help.
  20. Establish a standardized debrief process to examine all falls and near misses and analyze the system of safety practice for points of failure and opportunities for Standardize post-fall management protocol and include a post-fall huddle format.
  21. Have a plan for sustainability.

Performance Improvement Plan

Follow this checklist if the leadership team has determined that a performance improvement project is necessary.

To grasp the current situation thoroughly, analyze objective data and trends, ensuring data sources are reliable. However, the key step is direct observation at the point of care. Even for those familiar with the area, examining processes from all angles is enlightening. Asking frontline staff questions during observation helps everyone understand each process step and identify necessary resources for enhancing patient outcomes.

Falls processes to consider assessing:

  • Use of call light and response to call light
  • Use of current assessment tools and how these assessments are performed and documented
  • Assessment tools for specific populations (e.g., new mothers and newborns)
  • Frequency of risk assessment
  • Use of restraints
  • How findings from root cause analyses are shared
  • Staff knowledge of fall prevention for different populations and cultures

Evaluate outcomes, celebrate wins, and adjust the plan when necessary.

Measure both process and outcome metrics. Outcome metrics include the rates outlined below. Process metrics will depend upon the workflow you are trying to improve and are generally expressed in terms of compliance with workflow changes. Compare your outcomes against other related metrics your organization is tracking.

Routinely review all metrics and trends with both the advisory and project teams and discuss what is going well and what is not. Identify barriers to completion of action plans and adjust the plans if necessary. Once you have the desired outcomes in the trial area, consider expanding to other areas.

Typical gaps identified in falls improvement work:

  1. Non-responsiveness to call lights
  2. Equipment and environmental risks (e.g., beds that are too high)
  3. Patients are not mobilized due to a fall risk
  4. Bias in fall risk (e.g., ageism)
  5. Gloss flooring (glare can reduce sight)
  6. Lack of handrails in the room, walkways, and bathrooms
  7. Windows with glare or without polarized coatings
  8. Lack of clear definition of what constitutes a fall
  9. Changes in patient’s medication/treatment without informing the patient about how it will impact their risk for falls
  10. Lack of sensitivity to fall risk factors for those of different backgrounds (e.g., washing feet before prayer)

Fall metrics to consider assessing:

  1. Fall rate
  2. Falls with injury rate
  3. Infant falls
  4. Delirium assessments conducted
  5. Restraint use
  6. Use of visual cues for fall risk patients
  7. Medications associated with falls

Factors that increase fall risk:

  1. Prior history: History of a fall, history of bedrest, visual impairment
  2. Cardiovascular: History of anemia or preeclampsia, orthostatic hypotension, dizziness
  3. Hemorrhage: Postpartum hemorrhage (> 1,500 ml), placental abruption or previa
  4. Neuro-function/anesthesia: Post-general, regional, or neuraxial anesthesia, paresthesia in the thigh, epidural infusion discontinued < 3 hours
  5. Motor/activity: Able to straight leg raise but unable to bridge, unable to straight leg raise
  6. Medications: IV/IM narcotics, anti-hypertensive, tocolytics, sleep aids

 Guiding principles related to fall prevention and protection from injury:

  1. Many falls are predictable and preventable.
  2. Fall prevention is a shared responsibility within healthcare and throughout the institution.
  3. Person and family-centered care is foundational to the care of people at risk for a fall and fall injuries.
  4. The risks and benefits for the person should be considered in partnership with patients and their advocates when implementing interventions for fall prevention and protection from injury.

 The performance gap in preventing falls

Many succeed temporarily due to a “placebo effect.” Simply raising staff awareness will only work to reduce falls for a short period of time.

 Environmental factors that may increase fall risk:

  1. Furniture on wheels
  2. Cluttered pathways
  3. Poor lighting
  4. Height of furniture
  5. Slippery floors
  6. Unit layout making it difficult to see patients from nurses’ station
  7. Medical devices (IV poles, indwelling urinary catheters)
  8. Glare from windows
  9. High-gloss flooring

Situational factors that increase fall risk:

  1. Leaning forward
  2. Reaching up
  3. Transferring on/off bed/chair

Use appropriate tools

Analysis of falls with injury in the Sentinel Event database of The Joint Commission revealed the most common contributing factors are:

  1. Inadequate assessment
  2. Communication failures
  3. Lack of resources, including staffing
  4. Lack of adherence to protocols and safety practices
  5. Inadequate staff orientation, knowledge, supervision, or skill mix
  6. Deficiencies in the physical environment
  7. Lack of leadership 

Engage staff, patients, and families

  1. Review interventions for fall prevention and protection from injury:
    1. Use visual cues to indicate high-risk fall patients for staff members, in addition to ambulation equipment:
  2. Examples of visual cues: color-coded gowns, wristbands, socks, and external magnets
    1. Share this information with patients and families to raise their awareness of fall risks and your steps to prevent them.
    2. Solicit their agreement to help prevent falls as part of your care team.
  3. Ensure those involved in medication regimes, including administration, understand their roles in fall prevention and protection from injury.

Define the types of falls:

Physiological (anticipated): Most in-hospital falls belong to this category. These are falls that occur in patients who have risk factors for falls that can be identified in advance, such as altered mental status, abnormal gait, frequent toileting needs, or high-risk medications.

Physiological (unanticipated): These are falls that often occur in a patient who is otherwise at low fall risk, because of an event whose timing could not be anticipated, such as a seizure, stroke, or syncopal episode.

Accidental: These falls occur in otherwise low-risk patients due to an environmental hazard. Improving environmental safety will help reduce fall risk in these patients but is helpful for all patients.

Categorize falls with injury:

  1. No apparent injury
  2. Minor injury: Bruises or abrasions as a result of the fall
  3. Moderate injury: An injury that causes tube or line displacement, a fracture, or a laceration that requires repair, including application of steri-strips
  4. Major injury: Injury that requires surgery or a move to the intensive care unit for monitoring a life-threatening injury
  5. Death

Provide education and training

  1. Ensure that rotations of students, volunteers, and new employees understand the importance of fall prevention and protection from injury actions.
  2. Consistently educate newly admitted patients and their advocates on the importance of their partnership in reducing and avoiding falls. Clearly define their role and actions.
  3. Get input from patients and families who themselves are managing conditions which put them or a loved one at risk for falls.
  4. Create a post-fall huddle protocol.

Include guidelines on how to care for a patient that has fallen:

  1. Once the immediate medical concerns of the fall have been addressed, perform a non-punitive root cause analysis, including the patient who fell and any family members who may have witnessed the fall.
  2. There are two different types of root cause analyses: aggregate and individual.
  3. Organizations should consider having both processes in place to assure maximum learning and improvement. Highly reliable institutions create a safe environment for staff members, patients, and their advocates to report any potential patient safety concerns.
    1. Without this safe reporter environment, true root causes will never be found, thus creating negative patient safety outcomes indefinitely.

Technology Plans

  1. Data and data analytic systems capture and utilize patient information through wearables, such as sensors in garments and footwear.
  2. Understanding the potential increased risk of newborn falls and drops is a challenge in today’s fast-paced healthcare environment. Utilizing principles of high reliability, including preoccupation with failure, a healthcare system should consider developing a process to help prevent newborn falls and drops for all infants under their care. This process should include:
    1. Developing an assessment tool to indicate those at increased risk for a newborn fall. This tool will promote common language and a shared mental model among the healthcare team and act as a cognitive aid to staff so all are performing assessment in a similar manner.
    2. Educating parents based on assessment. Those at highest risk should be counseled on the risks for newborn falls and drops and the need to call for help when feeling tired or sleepy.
    3. Cautioning parents against falling asleep with their newborn in the bed or co-sleeping with their newborn.
    4. Rounding hourly by staff so mothers or other caregivers noted to be drowsy can be assisted in placing their newborn in a bassinet.
    5. Promoting maternal rest.
    6. Developing signage for the patient room or a crib card to reinforce the increased risk of infant falls and the importance of placing the infant in a bassinet when the mother is sleepy or after the mother receives pain medications.
    7. Developing a standardized reporting and debriefing tool in the event of an infant fall. A standardized tool will help capture important data to better understand the risk and environment when the event occurred and result in consistent post-fall care for the newborn. In the event of a fall, provide emotional support to the family or caregiver who may suffer as a second victim in this event. Predictive modeling is being embedded into alert systems, such as communication and nurse call, and into electronic healthcare records.
  3. Data analytics will drive advances in fall prevention and protection from injury. Technology is also advancing into the physical environment with systems designed to create safer environments. New advancements utilize high-performance monitoring systems to reduce physical sitters needed for individual observation.
  4. Measure and report falls monthly (Falls/1,000 patient days). Note trends in areas with low screening and prevention compliance and high fall incidence. Routinely reassess outcomes.
  5. Consider tracking and collecting inpatient falls data and outcomes post-discharge to monitor the frequency and cost of morbidity and mortality. Sustain focus on fall prevention with system-wide visibility on metrics at multiple touchpoints within the organization.

In the field of fall prevention and protection from injury, there is a focused approach to restore muscle strength and balance:

  • In the inpatient arena, technology has influenced advancements in rehabilitation equipment that is supporting earlier mobilization.
  • In the outpatient arena, exercising and classes such as tai chi have provided methods to help individuals at high risk for a fall with an overall approach to strengthening muscles.

While these classes are good, they are problematic for many patients. Emerging 3D technology and interactive games have the potential to be customizable to individual capabilities.

Approach technology use with the understanding that it is multifocal, evolutionary, and not static in both use and understanding. Investments of resources, both capital and human, are ongoing and need to be planned for as such.

Electronic Health Records can provide meaningful data that can inform predictive modeling, advances in patient safety, and further application of evidence into practice. It is only through interoperability of clinical systems that this can be achieved.

Hospital Executives

This protocol outlines the steps that hospital executives can follow to avoid preventable falls: 

The Problem

Annually, there are between 700,000 and 1,000,000 falls in US hospitals. Furthermore, nearly 40% of elderly patients experience a fall within six months post-surgery. According to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, one in every three people over 65 years of age experiences a fall each year, and this figure increases to nearly half of adults over the age of 80. The types of physical trauma caused by a fall are many and can include fractures, lacerations, or internal bleeding, ultimately leading to a significantly greater burden on the healthcare system and for the patient and family members.

The Cost

Based on the most recent estimates in 2023, preventable falls account for $17 billion (US) annually. The aging population is expected to experience a growing number of hip fractures, thereby increasing the estimate to $240 billion by 2040.

The Solution

Many healthcare organizations have successfully implemented and sustained improvements and reduced death from falls. The PSMF’s blueprints for frontline staff and managers outline the actionable steps organizations should take to successfully reduce falls and summarize the available evidence-based practice protocols.

Organizational factors that increase risk of falls:

  1. Staffing:
    1. Numbers
    2. Knowledge
    3. Skill mix
    4. Attitudes
  2. Types of policies:
    1. Hourly, intentional rounding
    2. Toileting schedules
    3. Type of fall prevention program
  3. Available equipment purchases:
    1. Transfer equipment
    2. Surveillance video monitoring
    3. Non-slip cushions
    4. Low/very low beds
    5. Seating
    6. Bed/chair alarms as a reactive tool

A lack of patient-centered practice, congruence, and organizational focus have caused—and continue to cause—preventable patient injury or death while increasing the costs of care. Closing the performance gap with an organizational focus will require leaders and their health systems to commit to specific actions by all disciplines throughout the organization in partnership with patients at risk, as well as their family-member care partners who support their safety before, during, and after a hospital stay.

Patient & Families

This guide outlines the steps that patients and family members can follow to prevent falls:

As a family member, you can serve as an extra pair of eyes and ears and can alert medical staff if something might be wrong. You should be aware of signs of potential fall risk, such as altered mental status or orthostatic hypotension (light headedness or dizziness when standing up).

Patients and family members can:

  1. Talk with their healthcare provider about fall risks and prevention.
  2. Engage in conversations around current potential health conditions.
  3. Make sure floors are clear, clean, and free of clutter.
  4. Install handrails or grab bars in stairways and bathrooms when at home.
  5. Keep an updated list of patient’s medications and discuss any side effects with the healthcare provider.
  6. Inquire about activities that improve balance and strengthen legs to prevent unattended falls.
  7. Encourage regular optometrist appointments to ensure any deterioration of the eyes is cared for.

Below are a number of factors that increase the risk of falling. If patient experiences any of these symptoms or when family members notice such signs in their patient they have to inform the medical team immediately:

  • Impaired gait
  • Impaired cognition
  • Forgetfulness
  • Fatigue
  • Poor judgment
  • Impulsiveness
  • Sedation/recent surgery
  • Impaired vision
  • Weakness, especially legs
  • Hypotension
  • Depression
  • Drug interactions
  • Delirium
  • Resistance to loss of independence to carry out daily activities
  • The desire to “not disturb” nurses
  • Feeling of “uselessness”
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Acute event (e.g., pulmonary embolism)
  • Certain medications (sedatives, opioids, SSRIs)
  • Prior history of fall(s)
  • History of vertigo
  • Low/drop in oxygen saturation rate
  • Use of cane or walker to get around
  • Taking a new medication with potential side effects, including dizziness or confusion

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Ganza A.D., Et al. AHRQ. Preventing Falls in Hospitals. (2024)

Leung P, et al. Falls Prevention for Older Adults. (2024)

Hawkins M, et al. Evaluation of a Fall Prevention Program to Reduce Fall Risk and Fear of Falling Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults and Adults with Disabilities. (2024)

Meulenbroeks I, et al. Effectiveness of fall prevention interventions in residential aged care and community settings: an umbrella review. (2024)

Camp K, et al. Integrating Fall Prevention Strategies into EMS Services to Reduce Falls and Associated Healthcare Costs for Older Adults. (2024)

Moran R. Patient-stimulated fall prevention screening in primary care: analysis of provider coding changes. (2023)